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Steve's Guide to Metal Detecting for Gold Nuggets
Metal detecting for gold nuggets is the gold mining equivalent
of big game hunting. Many areas produce fine gold and small flakes, but
these areas will not usually prove productive with a metal detector. Only
areas with larger gold nuggets will be of interest, and so many locations
that are fine for panning and other types of mining will not be worth your
time if you plan on going for the big nugget. Researching the area to confirm
that large nuggets have been found there in the past will help make your
While detecting may limit you to fewer sites and more time between
each nugget you find, the fact is that successful detector operators tend
to find gold nuggets far larger than the finds of the average recreational
miner. Detecting is not nearly as physically demanding as most types of
mining, and lends itself well if you enjoy roaming freely rather than working
hard at a single site.
Here are a few facts and tips to get you started:
- Today's machines can detect gold as small as a half a grain with
ease. The depth of detection grows with the size of the target. A one
grain nugget may be found at two inches, a match head size nugget at
four inches, and a quarter ounce nugget at ten inches. Only the largest
nuggets will be found at depths over a foot. Metal detectors will not
normally find buried accumulations of fine gold directly.
- The higher the operating frequency of the detector, the more sensitive
it will be to small gold, but with the penalty of also being more sensitive
to iron minerals. This can result in more false signaling and difficulty
of operation in highly iron mineralized areas. Lower frequency detectors
are generally less sensitive to small nuggets, but handle iron ground
better. Frequencies on today's nugget detectors range from a low of
3kHz to a high of 71kHz. Pulse induction (PI) detectors are a special
type of unit that act like they are extremely low frequency detectors.
PI detectors main strength is in ignoring the worst ground mineral conditions
and finding large gold nuggets at maximum depths.
- Most models feature manual ground balance controls, which allow
the machine to be adjusted for the general iron content of the ground.
When the ground being searched is relatively homogenous, these controls
require minimal adjustments and work well. When the ground being searched
has wildly varying iron content or many out of place mineralized stones
(referred to as "hot rocks") then these manual controls will
have to constantly be adjusted to maintain proper performance. Detectors
that feature automatic ground balance will require less adjustment and
will have less false ground noise.
- Nugget detectors find all conductive metals. Most units have the
ability to tune out many common iron and steel trash items. Pulse induction
detectors are not so good at discriminating out trash items.
- Any gold located should be treated as an indicator, since rarely
will a nugget occur by itself. It is much more likely that more nuggets
are nearby, and gold smaller than the detector can locate or beyond
its immediate depth of detection is present. Such leads should be followed
up with further excavation and sampling.
- A metal detectors greatest advantage is that it needs no water,
a near-universal requirement for most methods of placer sampling. Use
this to your advantage to easily check material that is far from water,
such as arid locations or deposits located well uphill from the stream.
- Large nuggets sing out with a loud signal, but since most targets
will be small, train yourself using the smallest detectable nuggets
your machine can find. Learn the faint but very distinct sound that
small or deeply buried nuggets make. Always use headphones to enhance
your ability to hear these faint targets.
- Coil control is one of the most important aspects of proper metal
detector technique. Small items may only be detected at a few inches
or fractions of inches. Hovering the coil any appreciable distance over
the ground is one of the most common reasons for gold nuggets being
missed. The detection field projected underground resembles an inverted
cone, with the deepest depth of detection in the center of the coil.
At maximum depths only a tiny area is seen by the detector, and so overlapping
the sweeps is important when detecting a productive area or "patch".
- To find gold go where gold is found! Metal detectors can be used
to prospect new areas but do not expect to find much gold in areas where
gold has never been found. Instead, research and frequent areas with
past known production of the kind of gold you want to find. Research
is a real key to success. Remember to always obtain permission to detect
on mining claims or private property and be aware of any possible restrictions
on public lands.
- Commit yourself to learning your detector. Do not make the investment
if you do not plan on spending some time to properly give the method
a chance. It will be time profitably spent. The one thing that sets
successful detector operators apart from the crowd is their patience
and persistence. They enjoy the hunt itself, and consider the day well
spent even if no gold is found. Consistent success will only come with
I strongly believe there is no one best detector for all conditions.
The best detector for each area will depend on how much ground iron is present,
how large the gold is, and how much trash is in the area. Operator expertise
has by far the greatest effect on success. If you purchase a second detector,
having a low frequency model and a high frequency detector will give you
more versatility. Identical detectors will also interfere with each other
electronically and must be kept far apart, whereas differing models can
work side by side.
The most important accessory item you can own is a
of headphones. A good set will muffle outside noise, enhance the faint sounds
most nuggets make, and be comfortable for hours on end. Audio quality is
of extreme importance. Insist on trying several headphones with your detector
before you buy. The differences can be amazing. Make sure that the headphone
has its own volume controls and matches your detector for mono or stereo
Six Ounces of Gold Detected at Ganes Creek, Alaska in 2010
Other important accessories include a stout digging tool, such
as a stainless steel trowel or a short handle pick. A magnet can easily
pick up small steel trash items that may be found and are hard to locate
exactly. A plastic scoop or cup is indispensable in helping to separate
a small nugget from the soil by scooping and waving the soil over the detector
search coil. Snap plastic search coil protectors over the bottom of your
search coil to protect it from wear. Carry spare batteries and a plastic
bottle for your finds. Check into the possibility of using a belt or chest
harness with the detector control box to protect it and remove the extra
weight from your arm.
Do not overlook accessory search
coils. Smaller search coils will be more sensitive to smaller targets while
giving up some overall depth. Larger coils will produce more depth of detection
on larger targets, but will lose the ability to find some smaller nuggets.
Small coils are more popular and will pay off in bedrock areas in particular.
They can make a detector of moderate sensitivity perform like a higher frequency
detector. Large coils work well for finding oversize nuggets discarded in
tailing piles. Coils are not interchangeable between models; only
coils made for your machine will work with it. The chart below shows the
advantages of using both smaller and larger accessory coils.
Coil Size vs. Depth - Fisher Gold
The most important goal is to put yourself on nugget bearing ground.
These areas are well documented and can be researched. Check the land ownership
and contact claim owners if need be for permission to nugget hunt. If you
frequent areas that have not produced coarse gold, do not be surprised at
a lack of success.
For information and reviews of specific metal detectors see
Steve's Guide to Gold
Be responsible! Fill your holes behind you, and remove any small
trash you excavate. Proper and responsible practices will keep more areas
open to us all. Do not remove gold from mining claims without permission.
It is theft and may result in that claim being made off-limits to other
nugget hunters. Protect our hobby so we can all continue to enjoy it in
Good Luck & Good Hunting!
2009 Herschbach Enterprises