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Jim Hemmingway

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Jim Hemmingway last won the day on July 18 2016

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About Jim Hemmingway

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    Copper Contributor

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    Fish & Wildlife Biologist (Retired), Prospecting, Mineralogy, Music, Reading, Fly Fishing, Camping.

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  1. Jim Hemmingway

    Congratulations Phrunt - Minelab Winner Of The Month!

    Congratulations Simon for earning this outstanding recognition in the hobby!!! I doubt anyone is the least bit surprised that you wanted no reward for doing this good deed as a matter of principle. We would be remiss in not acknowledging how pleased we are to have you on this forum, and how much we enjoy reading your thoughtful, articulate contributions. WTG!!! Jim.
  2. Jim Hemmingway

    My First Equinox 6" Coin Hunt

    There can be a silver lining to every metal detecting "cloud", and your optimism and determination turned a skunk into a real productive outing.That's a recipe for success in this hobby!!! Congratulations Simon, and an especial well done on the 50% silver coin. WTG Jim.
  3. Jim Hemmingway

    Gerry's Tips & Tricks Video - White's Goldmaster 24K

    Thanks Steve for posting this instructive video from Gerry, his presentation was kept simple and straightforward, very easy for casual hobbyists to understand and retain. I enjoy his contributions to this forum because they’re knowledgeable and frequently creative. His technical information is always top-shelf. Jim.
  4. Jim Hemmingway

    Usefulness Of Fe304 Meters?

    Hi Simon… you are quite right that the Fe3O4 feature is useful to evaluate soil ferromagnetic mineralization. Use the Fe3O4 readout in conjunction with the GB readout for a more complete evaluation of what general type and strength of soil minerals exist beneath the coil. I also agree with Steve insofar as the Fe3O4 readout has never influenced my ground balance procedure either. But it does help newcomers to the hobby, some otherwise may never grasp the fundamentals of evaluating ground mineral effects that experienced hobbyists have employed for decades prior to the introduction of the Fe3O4 (and GB) readouts. These readouts can offer newcomers some confidence in selecting suitable coils to search tougher mineralizations. Such ferromagnetics are more easily handled by using DD coils and smaller coils, or both. However as an aside, I see little or no difference between concentrics vs DD with my smaller 6” elliptical coil configurations. The smaller coils also permit using higher sensitivity / gain adjustments compared to larger coils when detecting over tougher ground minerals. Steve’s example to illustrate ground effects on ground balance adjustment is excellent. You will find that as the strength of ferromagnetics increases, there will be less latitude available in coil height movement in order to keep the coil ground-balanced when compared to light / moderate ferromagnetic strength soils. You will observe that the coil can be raised and lowered to a greater extent over lighter ferromagnetic strength soils before losing proper ground balance. Or viewing it another way Simon, there will be less latitude in the GB control adjustment to keep the coil properly ground-balanced to tough ferromagnetics, whereas there is more leeway in the GB control adjustment over lighter magnetic susceptible mineralizations. This discussion should help to emphasize the importance we so often reiterate on the forums about the need for suitable coil selection, for proper coil control, and to suitably adjust the sensitivity / gain control, especially when ground-balancing to and searching tougher ground mineralizations. Jim.
  5. Jim Hemmingway

    Equinox 800 Recovers A Nugget As Big As The Coil

    Hi Gerry… thanks for an interesting post about native copper from Michigan’s copper / silver mining district. Prices vary with obvious physical characteristics but is especially true with structure. The beautiful dendritic specimens are surprisingly expensive at our mineral auctions. No firsthand experience but I’ve been told that naturally occurring native silver with copper in the same piece pushes pricing much higher. The sample you’ve displayed looks pretty good to me. It’s fairly typical, I wouldn’t want to put a price on it but I’ll bet the hobbyist who found it is just delighted with it. The example below isn’t worth much either, but like many other minerals of modest value, I’m satisfied just to have it in my reference collection. From Michigan’s Keweenaw Peninsula some 30+ years ago, together with some chlorite mineral and calcite crystals………………..Jim.
  6. Hi Gerry… congratulations on a very appealing find. Your specimen is attractive precisely because the gold contrasts so nicely with the white, crystalline quartz. I would avoid any form of hydrofluoric acid treatment that would attack the quartz crystals for that reason alone. A rock tumbler could damage both the gold and the quartz depending on the abrasive material utilized. The gold notwithstanding, we don’t want those handsome quartz crystals irretrievably damaged. It really is better to avoid any treatment to naturally attractive samples such as this one. That said, what you want is easily achieved with very little risk of damage. First option before attempting the technique described below for such a small sample, might be to try swirling the specimen for a few moments in a vinegar / table salt solution. I doubt it would attack the quartz crystals but ought to brighten the gold. Similarly, oxalic acid will remove iron stains without damaging the quartz. It is the standard treatment for this purpose used by serious collectors. From the photo at least, the gold could be somewhat delicate, but you might safely use a light gauge circular wire brush without incurring any serious damage. It's a bit risky on such a small sample. These wire brushes are normally supplied with small handheld rotary tools (dremel for example), and without checking mine, I think they’re about ¾ inch diameter or so. Use a slow speed setting, and only allow the brush tips to touch the high points of the gold. Apply no pressure. This will produce an attractive light luster, particularly on the gold high points. The silver sample below is much larger of course, but in appearance is somewhat similar in shape and structure to your gold specimen. It looked very much like your sample insofar as the silver was quite dull with no luster worth mentioning. Below is the final result after using a circular wire brush, but where some light pressure was applied because the sample was sufficiently durable to support it without risking damage…………….. Jim.
  7. Hi Gerry and everyone... after some 32+ years hunting in northeastern Ontario’s silver country, I have found a few odds and ends, lots of iron relics, older bottles, but only three silver coins. Incidentally I re-bury interesting iron to examine how my detectors react to them once they’ve had a chance to continue the rusting (maghemite formation) process for a few years. When I first ventured north to hunt native silver nuggets and ores, I used to explore widely by utilizing the old abandoned trails and roadways that once serviced the bustling mining camps of the time. Usually I would be hiking about with my old Garrett ADS Deepseeker (equipped with either a seven or twelve inch concentric coil) turned ON. One late afternoon I got a nice little signal and found these two handsome coins together with some large one-cent coppers, obviously a small coin spill from an unfortunate miner. The third silver coin was a 1905 King Edward half-dime found in the tailings of a former high production minesite located within the town limits of Cobalt. I haven’t bothered with a photo because it was slightly bent, but similar to the two dimes in the photo below it was lost in very nice condition. These finds lead me to think that payroll coinage must have come directly from the mint in Ottawa, but that’s speculation, as I’ve never researched it. I think we’ve all experienced finding something nice right at the beginning of an outing (water hunting is a good example with jewelry) and can’t find another good item the rest of the day. And vice-versa too of course. As a water hunter, coin hunter, and prospector I’ve observed this short-term pattern as just described many times. But I’ve only experienced it once over the long-term. I’ve never found another silver coin in that area over the past 30 years……………. Jim.
  8. Jim Hemmingway

    Relic Hunt With The White's GMT 24K

    Hi Gerry… a very insightful contribution, I found myself admiring your presentation of this detector’s potential versatility, goldhunting notwithstanding. I think it generally can be said that metal detectors, within certain constraints, are indeed versatile instruments. I appreciated those photo illustrations because they do strengthen your relic hunting comments. Congratulations on those interesting relics too. I especially liked the ornate bottle top and the old pocket watch, those are nice keepers. I once found a similar-looking pocket watch, albeit damaged, some 25 years ago while hunting silver here in Ontario. Came across a trashy area downhill from the dilapidated ruins of an old cabin out in the woods, and decided to probe for old bottles. It was mere chance that my aluminum probe happened to strike the watch instead of the many rusty tin cans, and that I bothered to check out a non-bottle “clink” for lack of a better description. But that too is a phenomenon of treasure hunting, the operator is the decisive factor in achieving a successful outcome. And finally Gerry, I think that regardless of the detector model, that you will get the most out of it for whatever application you pursue. It was similarly a genuine pleasure to read about your gold picker recoveries using the White’s V3i. It is fascinating to read your knowledgeable posts and to benefit from your lengthy, successful experience in the hobby. There is no doubt in my mind that you are the most valuable “keeper” that has come our way on this forum. Thankyou for your many helpful contributions, you are appreciated perhaps more than you might realize…………….. Jim.
  9. Jim Hemmingway

    My 24K Finds, Posts & Comments

    "Gerry, I always enjoy reading what you have to post and I believe you inspire newbies and well-seasoned individuals of the hobby that their is coins, jewelry, relics, nuggets and treasure in general to be found no matter what detector brand they are using. Ultimately it comes down to the individual on how well they know their detector and its limitations and then to use that knowledge in a productive area to have success." That goes for me too Gerry, I think your contributions are very knowledgeable and fair. Genuine expertise is self-revealing, and we appreciate all that you do to help us and to promote the hobby. Jim.
  10. Jim Hemmingway

    Abandoned Trails In Silver Country

    Thanks for the comments everyone, glad you enjoyed the article. PM sent to you Chuck, thankyou for the interest................. Jim
  11. Abandoned Trails in Silver Country Introduction… Silver country represents a small part of a vast, heavily forested wilderness perched on the sprawling Precambrian Shield here in northeastern Ontario. Away from the small towns and villages, and widely scattered farms and rural homesteads, there exists a largely uninterrupted way of life in the more remote areas. There are uncounted miles of lonely country backroads, overgrown tracks leading to abandoned mining camps, innumerable rough timber lanes, and a virtually infinite tangle of winding trails that reach deeply into the distant forests. Nothing in my experience has been so completely companionable as the soft forest whisperings and the beckoning solitude that reigns over this ruggedly beautiful country. This is where my carefree days of autumn prospecting have been agreeably spent for many years. We returned again this year to unbounded, satisfying autumn days of kicking rocks, exploring and detector-prospecting adventures, followed by evenings spent evaluating silver ores while savoring hot coffee over blazing campfires. Irrespective of silver recoveries, the flaming autumn colors of the boreal forest are the real treasure of the season. They persist for only a few short weeks, reluctantly yielding to the autumnal yellows of the tamarack, birch, and aspen in sharp contrast to the deep conifer greens. Scenery as depicted below accentuates your enthusiasm to get into the field, and pretty much ensures that an autumn prospecting trip to silver country is a memorable experience. General Discussion… Unprecedented, persistently wet conditions eliminated any potential for a banner season, but nonetheless we did manage to find considerable worthwhile silver. In addition to an assortment of rich silver and associated minerals, my friend and occasional partner Sheldon Ward recovered a large, very high conductive native silver ore that we’ll take a closer look at shortly. Most of my quality silver finds were fairly small, although a specimen grade silver ore at five pounds was found during the final week of the trip, and frankly I felt very fortunate to get it. Larger material was recovered, for example a 24-pound highgrade silver ore from the same area, but these invariably were mixed ores co-dominated by cobalt and various arsenides, most notably niccolite as illustrated below. On a more positive note, we both found plentiful small silver generally ranging between one-half and ten ounces that added real weight to the orebag over the season’s duration. It is much easier to find small but rich, high character silver than is the case with larger material. Even so, specimen grade detectable silver in any size range is becoming increasingly difficult to find at many of the obvious, readily accessible sites nowadays. The photo below is a pretty fair representation of the overall quality, although anything below a half-oz was excluded from this shot… such are not terribly photogenic beside larger samples. Some rich ‘nuggety’ ores were HCl acid-bathed to free the silver from carbonate rock, and all samples were subjected to a rotary tool circular wire brush to remove surface residues, followed by a dish detergent wash and rinse. By way of a brief background explanation to readers unfamiliar with this prospecting application, we search for more valuable coin-size and larger pieces of silver. Natural native silver target ID is determined by physical and chemical factors such as silver purity, types of mineral inclusions, structure (for example, dendritic, plate, disseminate or particulate, sponge, nuggety or massive), size, shape, and the profile presented to the coil. Virtually all natural silver from this area will target ID from low foil up to a maximum of silver dime range. Only infrequently over the years have we found isolated, rare examples of our naturally occurring silver exceeding that range. The specimen depicted below is a commonplace example of silver typically recovered here. It isn’t terribly large or particularly handsome, but it is mostly comprised of native silver by weight. Its target ID is a bit elevated from the usual, but consider that even small changes to some of the more influential factors listed above can significantly alter target ID. I tend to pay minimal attention to it when evaluating samples. It was detected adjacent to an abandoned mining track that leads directly to a former mill site at the mining camp scene depicted above. No treatment required other than a leather glove rubdown followed by a soapy wash and rinse, in fact it looked quite presentable fresh out of the dirt. The darker material you see is heavily tarnished native silver that I intend to leave undisturbed. Ground conditions also play an important role in determining target ID, and refer to factors such as the strength of non-conductive magnetic susceptible iron minerals present, ground moisture content, proximity of adjacent targets, and disturbed ground. These factors sometimes contribute to good silver at depth producing a VLF target ID within the iron range. Probably the best photo example available to me is a specimen found a few years back at good depth in tough magnetic susceptible diabase. It produced a predominantly iron target ID on the Fisher F75. It was detected in a fairly low trash area, the signal was suspect, and it was checked with the groundgrab feature. In this instance, there was no ground phase reduction to more conductive values as would be anticipated over rusty iron or a positive hotrock, and so the target was dug. The general rule of thumb over questionable weaker signals, regardless of groundgrab results, is to remove some material to acquire a stronger signal and target ID readout before making a decision to continue digging in our difficult, hard-packed rocky substrates, or to move on. If there is the least doubt, we dig the target to learn what actually produced the signal. The specimen depicted below was found by eyesight while hiking along an old abandoned rail track. In the field our rock samples seem more attractive or valuable than they do once we return to camp, where we tend to view them far more critically. If they don’t look to have good specimen grade potential, my samples are either abandoned in an obvious place for others to find, or given away to visitors back at camp. But that’s just me, most hobbyists are more resourceful with unwanted samples, they’re refined by some, subjected to treatments, or slabbed, and ultimately sold. In any case, this rock didn’t terribly impress me and was placed with other discards on the picnic table. But nobody other than my wife seemed much interested in it, and that is how it came to be included here. In its original condition, it could only be described as nondescript, with very little showing on the surface prior to treatment. It did produce a broad solid PI signal, despite that the few surface indicators were non-conductive dark ruby silver pyrargyrite and to a much lesser extent what I suspect is the black silver sulfosalt stephanite. To see more, it was acid-washed to expose silver and associated minerals, cleaned-up with a rotary tool, followed by a dish detergent bath and clean water rinse. Both these minerals produce a good luster that makes them a bit more difficult to distinguish from native silver in a photo. But in reality it is easy to see the differences and do some simple tests to confirm if necessary. The acid treatment revealed that the sample does have a good showing of dendritic native silver, a timely reminder that metal detectors see what we initially can’t see inside rocks. Abandoned Trails, Minesite Tracks and Roadbeds… Abandoned, frequently overgrown trails, mining tracks, and roadbeds provide convenient routes to prime detecting sites that otherwise would be much more difficult to access. But the important thing is that most such routes were built with discarded mine tailings to considerable depth, and contain good silver more frequently than you might think possible. Some snake through the bush to more remote areas, but the vast majority of these now abandoned routes were built to service existing minesites at the time. They were used to transport discarded rock to the tailing disposal areas, and silver ores to storage buildings and to mill sites, and generally to service other mining camp requirements. We know from research and experience that silver was misgraded, inadvertently misplaced, or lost directly from spills to eventually reside on, within, or alongside these now abandoned trails and roadbeds. These mine tailings… frequently containing rich silver… were also used to build storage beds, minesite entrances, loading ramps, and as noted… routes to facilitate waste rock transport. All these offer excellent, obvious prospects to search with a suitable metal detector. The nugget below, with several other pieces, was found in the tailings adjacent to the abandoned track in the photo above. Some good weather following a horrendous week of persistent heavy rainfalls prompted me to head out late one afternoon for some casual detecting. I had sampled those tailings earlier in the season but nothing by way of thorough searching. And while the silver was generally small, it had been surprisingly good quality. So I was looking forward to a few relaxing hours of detecting… nothing ambitious that late in the day… just happy to get out of camp. That particular spot formerly housed silver storage beds, and was now replete with large rusty nails. I should have used a VLF unit, as things would have gone much more quickly. VLF motion all-metal detection depth in that moderate ferromagnetic substrate would pretty well match Infinium equipped with the 8” mono, with the further advantage of target ID and groundgrab features to assist with signal evaluation. If conductive pyrrhotite hotrocks had also been present, I would have switched over to my F75 or MXT to take advantage of target ID. But I stayed with the Infinium primarily because I enjoy using it. By comparison it is slow going, but that isn’t such a bad thing over potentially good ground. It silences what can be described as VLF ground noise, in addition to sizable non-conductive mafic hotrocks in this area. It also has some limited high conductive iron handling capability, for example elongated iron such as drillrods or rail spikes at depth that VLF units using iron discrimination modes misidentify with perfectly good signals and non-ferrous target ID readouts. More information on this subject can be found at… http://forum.treasurenet.com/index.php/topic,384975.0.html http://forum.treasurenet.com/index.php/topic,385640.0.html Nearly all the signals proved to be nails, plus one drillrod with a perpendicular profile to the coil. The silver below produced a low-high signal in zero discrimination and a good high-low signal in reverse discrimination (maximum available pulse delay setting) at maybe eight to ten inches depth. The exposed silver was unusually tarnished and the remainder partially embedded in carbonate rock. It was acid-bathed to free the silver, cleaned with a rotary tool silicon carbide bit and circular wire brush, followed by a detergent wash and rinse. While searching one such abandoned route with his Fisher F75 equipped with the stock 11” DD elliptical coil, Sheldon Ward found a large highgrade silver ore comprised of a thick calcite vein containing massive dendritic native silver. The vein material weighs about 25 lbs, and was attached to a mafic host rock. It generated a moderate but broad signal from several feet depth, requiring an hour of hard pick and shovel work to recover it. It possesses an unusually elevated target ID in the silver quarter range. After 30+ years searching this area recovering numerous silver ores and nuggets, I've seen only a small handful of silver produce a similar target ID. On site we obviously have the benefit of closely examining the vein material, but it’s more difficult for readers to evaluate the silver based on photos only. Outdoor photos do tend to make native silver look much like grey rock, and unfortunately this one is smudged with dirt. I’ve added an indoor photo from Sheldon that displays the vein material after it was separated from the host rock and cleaned. Sheldon if you happen to be reading along here, congratulations on your many superb silver and associated mineral recoveries over the past year. Nothing that your dedication and persistence achieves in the years to come will ever surprise me. WTG!!! Persistence Pays Dividends… Let’s wrap things up with a tale about the rock sample below. It was recovered at the edge of a tangled overgrown trail near a former millsite just a few years ago. Its recovery exemplifies that the more you work towards your objective of finding silver or gold, the more likely your probability of success will correspondingly improve. I’d been searching that particular area for two days without meaningful results while evaluating a newly purchased Garrett Infinium for this application. The second day had again been filled with digging hard-packed rocky substrates for iron junk, worthless or otherwise unwanted arsenides, and plenty of conductive pyrrhotite hotrocks. As the sun was reaching for the western horizon, I decided to make one final effort before heading elsewhere the following day. Methodically working along the old track towards the mill, lots of old diggings were plainly visible. But previous hunters had ignored an area with a scattering of large, flat rusty iron pieces and other miscellaneous modern trash. I moved quickly to clear it away, because daylight was fading fast beneath the dense forest canopy. My Infinium soon produced a surprisingly strong high-low signal that practically vanished in reverse discrimination… a promising indication of naturally occurring ores. I dug down a foot before my Propointer could locate the signal. Probability says that it could have been any number of possible targets altogether more likely than good silver. But fickle Lady Luck was more kindly disposed towards me that evening. The rich, finely dendritic piece depicted below was in my gloved hands just as twilight was stealing across that lonely abandoned trail in remote silver country. A Final Word… A special mention to my friend Dr. Jim Eckert. I hadn’t seen much of Jim recently, but happened across his trail late one overcast afternoon in the outback. I was about to hike into a site when this fellow came flying down the trail on a motorbike, and despite the riding helmet I recognized him. We had a good long chat about this and that… Later in the season, one bright sunny afternoon at the site of my short-lived testhole diggings, Jim stopped around to show me a recent specimen find comprised of native silver and crystalline stephanite. We talked mineralogy and other interests many hours until finally the sun was going down. These were highlights of the trip, and I want to say how much I enjoyed and appreciated having that companionable time together. Thanks to everyone for dropping by. We hope that you enjoy presentations about naturally occurring native silver, particularly since it is different from what many rockhunters normally encounter in their areas. All the very best with your prospecting adventures… perhaps one day it will be our good luck to meet you in the field…………………… Jim. Reposted July 2018 Detector Prospector “Rocks, Minerals & Gems”
  12. Thankyou Simon for a very enjoyable read and some very beautiful panoramic views. Articulately written and nicely illustrated, it is a pleasure to follow your articles. That ring looks to be a quality find regardless that it may be plated with silver. I think it’s worth a visit to the jewelry shop for an estimate to recondition the silver. Also to confirm that it is in fact ivory. You can see that I'm in total agreement with JW's remarks. I’ve found many jewelry items over the years, particularly rings. A few of the silver rings found land hunting were squashed flat or broken. Both those descriptions apply to the silver ring depicted below. At the time it cost me about $45 Canadian dollars to repair it, that’s probably close to what it was worth back then. I don’t want damaged jewelry in my collection. I don’t mind spending the money on repairs as long as the cost seems reasonable. I would never have entered this hobby if it depended on an annual profit and loss statement surplus. I’d probably have done better selling lemonade at the bottom of the driveway………………… Jim.
  13. Hi Simon... fantastic post. It’s a real pleasure following along with all the illustrative photos to see exactly what you’re doing and finding. Congratulations of those nuggets, a nice increase in weightiness from the usual pickings. I’m not sure but I think it was almost as much fun to read about JW’s computer problem and subsequent solution thanks to you. I was reading your post to my wife and she laughed at how you phrased the part about the demise of JW’s motherboard. She says “ but that’s the main part of the computer isn’t it”? Jim.
  14. Jim Hemmingway

    A Cold Bleak Day Gold Detecting.... Brrrr

    JW & Simon… I think I tend to take these informative posts for granted. John is providing a lot of excellent technical information about detector settings utilized on site, the search conditions, and meaningful descriptions of geological features. It adds a lot of interest for me and I'm sure others appreciate it too. Interesting that you lost that small nugget signal once it was out of the ground requiring the VLF to locate it. This is a commonplace occurrence for me when using PI units on much larger sized but similarly structured silver nuggets. That usually means a “spongy” structure or otherwise what could be described as a high “character” nugget. They produce a perfectly good PI signal in the ground, but once on the surface the signal strength is drastically reduced or just disappears. And it’s disappointing too because the original in-ground signal has you digging with enthusiasm. You’re anticipating something a little more hefty than what actually surfaces. Thanks for a superb thread JW, and you too Simon for your excellent photos and observations. It is too bad a smaller elliptical searchcoil is unavailable for that Zed unit, otherwise I might think about buying one. I would need a smaller elliptical to navigate rocky areas and work steep hillslopes. My elbows and shoulders don’t want to deal with heavy coils on sharp inclines anymore. Love the skiing photos Simon, my wife and I are both dyed-in-the-wool downhill and cross-country skiers. JW I wish you wouldn’t post photos of your tasty dinner when I haven’t had any yet today. It looks so awfully good, but I'll have to settle for apple pancakes tonight. Jim.
  15. Jim Hemmingway

    White's MXT Will Go Down In History As All Time Favorite

    Thanks everyone for those appreciative comments above. I do enjoy responding to Gerry’s knowledgeable and interactive contributions to this forum. That’s not always possible for me because I’m not familiar with the western goldfields where Gerry conducts his training sessions or otherwise pursues gold nugget hunting. Gerry… I have no interest in straying too far off topic, but felt I should respond to your comment highlighted above. The specimen posted earlier is only one of many sizable native silver recoveries made over the years. It’s a nice find, but I would like to show you an additional few examples from Ontario’s silverfields. The first two samples depicted below are pretty much in a natural “as dug” condition. I’ve included a third smaller example because its size is more than compensated for by its solid nugget structure and high purity, a rare find in this area. All these could easily have been detected with a White’s MXT metal detector. It was only a matter of chance that a different prospecting-capable metal detector was utilized when these samples were found. For hobby newcomers reading along, the photos are not intended to suggest that anyone can reasonably expect to head out and detect large specimen grade silver in this area. My intent is to point out that the potential does exist, particularly if one has experience in the area, is a competent metal detector operator, and is willing to persevere and physically work. I don’t have a decent photo for the larger sample below. It’s just too lengthy to get sufficiently close with a camera to reveal detail. I’ve included an additional section close-up photo that helps in that regard. The entire calcite matrix is inundated with massive dendritic native silver of high purity, and incidentally, all the silver is electrically connected. There are no other mineral inclusions to subtract from the specimen’s appearance or value. To date Gerry, it is the most valuable thing I have found with a metal detector………………… Jim.